Metalshub

2019717 · Class I, which contains products with a nickel content of more than 99 wt% and Class II, which contains products with a nickel content of less than 99 wt% as shown in Table 1. Ferronickel and Nickel Pig Iron (NPI) are two alternatives to nickel metal. NPI typically contains around 4 to 10 wt% nickel. Its high amount of carbon (>3 wt%), silicon ...

"How Indonesia Beat the Philippines to Become the …

2021821 · In seven years, over US$30 billion has been invested into NPI (nickel pig iron) production facilities and stainless-steel plants with associated power stations, infrastructure development, industrial zone developments, skills development, employment opportunities, and so on. ... there has been ZERO investment in value added nickel processing in ...

Nickel Smelting and Refining

oxygen), or pure oxygen. Iron and sulfur are oxi-dized. The heat that results from exothermic re-actions is adequate to smelt concentrate, producing a liquid matte (up to 45% nickel) and a fluid slag. Furnace matte still contains iron and sulfur, and these are oxidized in the converting step to sulfur dioxide and iron oxide by injecting

Commodity Nickel

This smelting process will cause the iron and sulfide to oxidize resulting in 45% nickel. During the final step oxygen is injected in the molten bath, which will eliminate any of the remaining traces of iron and sulfide. ... During the 2007 crisis low grade nickel was used to produce so-called pig iron steel, which is of lower quality but much ...

Nickel Industries

A New Force in Global Nickel. Nickel Industries Limited (''Nickel Industries'' or ''the Company'') is an Australian public company emerging as a globally significant, low cost producer of nickel pig …

Nickel Pig Iron RKEF nickel operation Report | Wood …

2021215 · China commenced importing laterite ores in 2005 for the production of a low Ni bearing FeNi termed pig iron; indeed the ore imports have at times been classified as iron ore imports rather than nickel ore imports. During 2005 China imported some 265kt ore from the Philippines (although there are suggestions that Zhejiang Huaguang also imported ...

Technical & Cost Comparison of Laterite Treatment …

2020327 · the Caron process). The pyrometallurgical processes were assumed to produce nickel in metallic iron, i.e. ferronickel or nickel pig iron. Pressure acid leaching appears to offer the best economics for treating the limonite if the Neomet and DNi processes do not produce saleable by-products. If the by-product hematite and magnesia

GHG emissions intensity for class 1 nickel by resource type …

20221015 · Data received from Skarn Associates (nickel sulfide and laterite HPAL) and Trytten Consulting Services (nickel matter via NPI). Notes. HPAL = high pressure acid leaching; NPI = nickel pig iron. Includes both Scope 1 and 2 emissions from …

nickel processing

Nickel concentrates may be leached with sulfuric acid or ammonia, or they may be dried and smelted in flash and bath processes, as is the case with copper. Nickel requires higher smelting temperatures (in the range of 1,350 °C [2,460 °F]) in order to produce an artificial nickel-iron sulfide known as matte, which contains 25 to 45 percent nickel the next step, iron in the …

Nickel pig iron (NPI)

Nickel pig iron containing chrome and nickel is used for stainless steel production. The use of NPI gives the possibility of reducing consumption of FeNi and FeCr in the process of stainless steel production. This type of NPI has unique characteristics, which can be used for cast of particular complex machine parts and mechanisms that operate ...

Does Matte Matter?

2021916 · converter to oxidize and separate iron and produce a nickel matte2. This process is a more efficient and effective method of producing nickel matte as it is slightly less energy intensive and allows the use of lower quality (high sulphur) coal as a reductant in the RKEF process. However, it reduces product flexibility as nickel matte

Indonesia, Tsingshan and the crashed nickel

202139 · Nickel pig iron has a nickel content of less than 5%. Indonesian NPI is said to have a nickel content of up to 2%, depending on the source. Nickel pig iron to become nickel matte. According to Tsingshan, a new process is to be used to produce the higher-quality nickel matte from the cheap NPI.

Carbothermic Reduction of Nickeliferous Laterite Ores for …

2013926 · Both the consumption and production of crude stainless steel in China rank first in the world. In 2011, the nickel production in China amounted to 446 kilotons, with the proportion of electrolytic nickel and nickel pig iron (NPI) registering 41.5% and 56.5%, respectively. NPI is a low-cost feedstock for stainless steel production when used as a substitute for electrolytic …

Direct extraction of nickel and iron from laterite ores using …

2013121 · Meanwhile, the production of nickel pig iron in China and India has been supplementing some of the refined nickel in stainless steel production, in the past 15 years (Widmer, 2009). Some of the methods stated above have processing cost advantages over others due to the credits generated from cobalt, copper and other metals.

Nickel pig iron plants'' operation rate in Jiangsu in October …

Title: Nickel pig iron plants' operation rate in Jiangsu in October 2022, Summary: :According to FerroAlloyNet survey, the operation rate ofnickel pig ironplants in Jiangsu Province inOctoberis . Among the 5 plants, allplants are ...

Processing Nickel Laterite Ore without Pyrometallurgy

2022923 · Of course it is inefficient to feed 40% iron into a blast furnace containing high levels of magnesium to boot, but as long as the nickel price stays above a break-even threshold then the process is profitable (they do get the iron units for nothing and only pay about 10% the value of the contained nickel!!). This is why production of pig-nickel ...

FERRONICKEL PRODUCTION AND OPERATION

2015227 · KEYWORDS: Lateritic nickel ores, nickel pig iron. INTRODUCTION Nickel is a very important metal which is widely used in the industry. Refined meta4 powder and sponge …

Hydro-Pyro Integration in the processing of Nickel …

202124 · However the additional reduction of iron oxide lowers the Ni grade (albeit normally increasing the Ni recovery to some extent) and can result FeNi with Ni contents well below the normal specification of 20% (i.e. typically between 5 and 15%). These low Ni grades are typical of nickel pig iron (NPI) that has grown significantly as a

Nickel Pig Iron | Silkroad Nickel

Nickel Pig Iron, or NPI in short, is a ferronickel that is used as a cheaper alternative in the production of stainless steel. NPI is made of laterite nickel ores, which are then heated in a …

(PDF) Matte from NPI

202136 · Abstract. A review of the probable impacts of producing nickel matte from nickel pig iron. Content uploaded by Lyle Trytten. Author content. Content may be subject to …

Nickel pig iron (NPI)

Nickel pig iron containing chrome and nickel is used for stainless steel production. The use of NPI gives the possibility of reducing consumption of FeNi and FeCr in the process of stainless …

Pig Iron Production

For general information about merchant pig iron, please visit the pig iron page. Modern blast furnaces produce more than 10,000 tonnes per day. Blast Furnace Process. The blast furnace is a counter-current gas/solids reactor in which the …

How clean can the nickel industry become?

2020911 · With demand expected to increase from 2.2 million metric tons to somewhere in the range of 3.5 million to 4.0 million metric tons by 2030, the nickel market could become constrained. As per recent media attention, when …

Nickel 28 Comments on Tsingshan''s Nickel Matte Plans

202138 · Justin Cochrane, Nickel 28''s President and CEO stated "Recent industry news about conversion of Nickel Pig Iron (NPI) to nickel matte have resulted in speculation that new nickel supply is ...

Dirty Nickel Pig Iron''s Pollution, Cost and Impurities are …

2010624 · The threat that Chinese-produced nickel pig iron poses to Sudbury''s nickel producers is overblown, according to mining analyst Raymond Goldie. Speaking to the 11th International Platinum Symposium at Laurentian University''s Fraser Auditorium June 22, Goldie said that nickel pig iron — a low-cost substitute for refined nickel — is too ...

ESS Smelting Technology Enabling FeNi Smelting from …

2015615 · The RKEF process is widely used to produce ferronickel from saprolitic nickel ores. Limonites are mostly treat-ed hydrometallurgically. However, limonites can be smelted in mini blast furnaces, in which case most of the iron is reduced with the nickel to produce nickel pig iron. Difficulties when smelting high iron limonite in an electric furnace

NICKEL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

2018622 · Processing Refining Product Quality Product Quality Nickel and/or Cobalt (Smelting Process) a. Saprolit b. Limonit Pentlandit Garnerit Serpentinit Karolit Nickel Matte, …

Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of …

20201029 · The primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from nickel smelting products have been assessed through case studies using a process model based on mass and energy balance. The required primary energy for producing nickel metal, nickel oxide, ferronickel, and nickel pig iron is 174 GJ/t alloy (174 GJ/t contained Ni), 369 GJ/t alloy (485 …

Nickel pig iron market contributes to …

2019419 · Nickel pig iron, a low-grade ferronickel, was created in China as a cheaper alternative to high-grade nickel that is used for stainless steel production. ... In 2014, Indonesia banned the exports ...

Development of nickel industry in Indonesia

202128 · We expect Indonesia''s primary nickel production, such as ferronickel and nickel pig iron (NPI), to significantly increase, resulting from the rapid expansion of NPI projects. In the first half of 2020 (1H2020), ... All the data and information needed in the rating process are obtained from the party requesting the rating, which

About Us — Nickel Asia Corporation

We export saprolite and limonite ore to our customers in China and Japan, who process our ore to produce ferronickel and nickel pig iron (NPI), used for the production of stainless steel. Our …

Pig Iron | International Iron Metallics Association

Pig iron is produced by smelting or iron ore in blast furnaces or by smelting ilmenite in electric furnaces . Pig iron is supplied in a variety of ingot sizes and weights, ranging from 3 kg up to more than 50 kg. The vast majority of pig iron …

NICKEL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

2018622 · Processing Refining Product Quality Product Quality Nickel and/or Cobalt (Smelting Process) a. Saprolit b. Limonit Pentlandit Garnerit Serpentinit Karolit Nickel Matte, Metal Alloy and Nickel Metal Ni Mate ≥ 70% Ni FeNi ≥ 10% Ni Nickel Pig Iron (NPI) ≥ 4% Ni Metal Ni ≥ 93% and/or NiO ≥ 70% Ni Nikel dan/atau Kobalt (Proses Pelindian ...

Pig Iron Manufacturing Process

2017320 · Brown and Lathe, using hematite with 2.23 per cent. SiO2, had from a trace to 0.24 per cent, silicon in the pig steels produced. The work of Neveu and Arnou on hematite, magnetite, and siderite ores of from 0.6 to 8.96 …

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